In 1999, the futurist Ray Kurzweil published a book entitled The Age of Spiritual Machines. He looked forward to a future in which the “human species, along with the computational technology it created, will be able to solve age-old problems?.?.?.?and will be in a position to change the nature of mortality.”99年,将来学者雷?库兹韦尔(Ray Kurzweil)撰写的一本称为《机器之心》(The Age of Spiritual Machines)的书图书发行了。在他所期待的将来,“人类以及创设的建筑科学将必须解决困难历史悠久的难题……并将必须变化丧生的实质。”Mr Kurzweil is now an executive at Google, one of whose co-founders, Larry Page, launched a start-up, Calico, in 2013 with the aim of harnessing advanced technologies that will enable people to “lead longer and healthier lives”.库兹韦尔现在是Google(Google)的一名管理层。

二零一三年,谷歌创始人之一萨格?佩琦(Larry page)开创了一家初创公司Calico,其服务宗旨是运用技术设备技术性,让大家必须“更为长命、更为身心健康”。Others go even further. Aubrey de Grey, co-founder of Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence, a research centre, believes that ageing is just an engineering problem. Technological progress, he maintains, will eventually enable human beings to achieve what he calls “life extension escape velocity”.有一些人的总体目标更为宏大。科学研究组织Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence的带头创办人奥布里?德卡兰(Aubrey de Grey)强调,细胞凋亡仅仅一个行程问题。

他强调,科技创新最终将让人类而求超出他常说的“使用寿命减少的逃逸速度”。As for Mr Kurzweil, earlier this year he announced that he had “set the date 2045 for the ‘Singularity’ which is when we will multiply our effective intelligence a billion-fold by merging with the intelligence we have created”. In this “transhumanist” vision, once we turn ourselves into “spiritual machines”, we will be able to live forever.对于库兹韦尔,2020年稍早,他宣布他“把2045年确定为超出‘奇点’的時间,到那时候大家将根据与大家创设的智能化融合,使我们的具体聪慧加强十亿倍”。

在这类“强力人类现实主义”的发展前景中,一旦大家变成了“有生命的设备”(spiritual machines),大家就能总有一天生存下去。Although mortality denial is currently fashionable in Silicon Valley, it is not new. On the contrary, it is one of the most successful products ever designed and has been on the market for millennia.虽然在美国硅谷,“坚称丧生”(mortality denial)现在是个时尚潮流语汇,但它并不新鮮。忽视,它是迄今为止设计方案过的最成功的商品之一,早就经常会出现在销售市场数千年了。

Because human beings are the only animals to have evolved an explicit, consciously experienced insight into their own finitude, there is a robust and enduring demand for this particular psychological sleight of hand. Unfortunately, death is not just something the Chinese have invented to make America less competitive. Empirical evidence and rational argument converge on the simple, sobering fact that all of us will eventually disappear for good — sooner or later, more or less gracefully, and with more or less suffering.由于人类是唯一一种早就对本身局限组成了实际的、心理状态的掌握的小动物,因此 人类对这类相近的心理状态伎俩具备强悍且长期的市场的需求。出现意外的是,丧生并不是仅仅我们中国人发明人出去让英国降低竞争能力的东西。

工作经验直接证据和客观争辩都偏向一个比较简单、引人深思的客观事实:大家任何人最终都将永久消退,无论怎样,或比较洒脱或不那麼洒脱,或比较痛苦或不那麼痛苦。It is hard to face this fact in an intellectually honest manner. Human beings have a problem that no creature before them had: the human cognitive self-model explicitly tells its user that everybody dies, thereby creating a toxic form of self-knowledge, a deep existential wound. My emotional deep structure tells me there is something that must never happen, while rational thought tells me that the ultimate accident is inevitable. Religion was an early-stage adaptation to this neurocomputational bug.大家难以真心诚意应对这一客观事实。人类遭遇的难题是在人类以前一切微生物都没遇到过的:人类了解的自身实体模型实际对他说它的使用人,任何人都是会杀,进而创设了一种伤害的自身了解方式,一个深深地的涉及循环的创口。

我心里的感情对他说我,一些事儿总有一天会再次出现,而创新思维能力对他说我,最终的车祸事故是难以避免的。宗教信仰是对这类神经计算缺少的初期适应能力。Aiding and abetting human self-deception in ingenious and sophisticated ways is therefore a lucrative business.因而,用特有且简易的方法来帮助和煽动人类自身忽悠是一门能够赚钱的做买卖。

In its most primitive form, represented by organised religion down the centuries, mortality denial has consisted in just that — simple, outright denial. In the religious perspective, the good news is that all of this is not true — the dead will be resurrected. You are loved and accepted by an omnipresent divine being. And if you manage to accept yourself as accepted, you will finally be able to feel at home in a strange and hostile world, reacquainting yourself with the early childhood emotion of security.具备最详细的方式,以很多新世纪至今的有的机构宗教信仰为意味着,坚称丧生的关键点取决于比较简单、彻底的坚称。从宗教信仰的视角而言,喜讯是一切都并不是了解,病亡的人将复生。有一位无所不在的神在恋人着你并拒绝接受你。

假如你拒绝接受被神所拒绝接受的自身,你最终将必须在一个生疏且对立的全球中煞有其事,新的感受童年那类归属感。The gospel of alternative facts comes in many different flavours and varieties. In organised self-deception, there are levels of sophistication. For example, a Buddhist may claim that she does not even want to be reborn, that her highest goal is to liberate herself from the cycle of death and rebirth. If things don’t work out with nirvanic giga-bingo in this life, then, unfortunately, something in you is forced to survive death.这类取代客观事实的教规各种各样。在有的机构的自身忽悠中,复杂性各不相同。比如,佛教信徒有可能强调,她乃至想再生,她的最少总体目标是让自身摆脱丧生与再生的循环系统。

假如今生未能如愿转到极乐世界,那麼出现意外的是,你人体中的一些东西可能丧生。Other versions of denial involve tying your self-esteem to your tribe or nation. You can stabilise your sense of self-worth by being a good communist, a pious Catholic or by becoming a complacent secular humanist — all you need is a set of values that you can live up to and a mutually reinforcing community of believers

你能根据沦为一个优秀的社会民主党、一个坚信的天主教徒或沦为一个得意洋洋的世间人文主义者获得个人价值觉得。你务必的是一套你可以遵循的价值观念及其一个相互促进的教徒人群。Others strive for symbolic immortality by seeking to make a genuine and lasting contribution to science, philosophy or culture. Imagine writing a book that will be read centuries after your death, or composing a piece of music or creating art that will be admired by thousands long after your physical body has shrivelled and perished.也有一些人根据谋取为科学、社会学或文化艺术做出的确长期的奉献,期待获得具有寓意的永世。

比如,写成一部在你人死之后数百年仍被阅读者的经典著作,或是写作一首歌曲或一件艺术品,在你的身体烟消云散很幸以后仍将被千余人赞美。Silicon Valley tech evangelism and transhumanism are merely the latest forms of culturally evolved self-deception. They present us with a new metaphysical placebo for existential palliative care. Will we upload ourselves into virtual reality? Perhaps a benevolent superintelligence can help us break through into a life beyond all suffering? Could the church of the technological singularity be right in proclaiming that immortality is nearer than we think?美国硅谷的高新科技宣传教育和强力人类现实主义仅仅在文化艺术上有一定的演变的自身忽悠的最近方式。她们为涉及人类不会有的姑息疗法带来新的超自然现象的安慰剂效应。

大家否不容易把我们自己带进虚拟现实技术?或许,一种想要的智能能够帮助大家摆脱全部痛苦?技术奇点理论宣称永世比大家想像的更为接近,这否精确?It is tempting to dismiss scientifically inspired presentiments of immortality as arrant nonsense, but we should not underestimate the way ideas like transhumanism speak powerfully to our unconscious need for delusion. This is not only a new religion that does without God and churches — it also is a marketing strategy for new technology. A novel form of cross-promotion and co-branding, tech evangelism really aims at a deeper and more efficient penetration into the digital marketplace by offering mortality denial in the same package.大家很更非常容易将遭受科学设计灵感的永世察觉到斥为胡说八道,但大家也不应看低强力人类现实主义这类的好点子强有力的证实了大家在潜意识中中是务必出现幻觉的。这不但是一种没造物主和主教堂的新宗教信仰,也是一种推展新的高新科技的营销策略。高新科技宣传教育是一种新式的交叉式推展和知名品牌带头,的确的目地是根据明确指出某种意义纸箱的反驳丧生之讲到,更为掌握、更为合理地渗入数据销售市场。